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Evolution of Indian Plate

 

 

 

Evolution of Indian Plate
Evolution of Indian Plate, source of photo is US Geological Survey
https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/himalaya.html

 

Before 200 MA the whole world was one peace which known as Pangea and surrounded by Panthalassa ocean, and then consequence the drift of continental started and Pangaea separated to two part on the north known as Laurasia and on the south Gondwana where the Indian was a part of with Africa,S America, Antarctica & West Antarctica , Australia, , and the two part separate by Tethys Ocean.

Around 130 MA by action of mantle plume Gondwana also separated and  Indian plate drifted to northward to Asia-European continent, the velocity of Indian plate were from 18 to 20 cm per year, the other continental velocity of gondwana were 2 to 4 cm per years, the reason of high relatively velocity of Indian plate is the small thickness of the plate that around 100 km compare with 180 km for another continent so its became easy to plate to move on the lithosphere and relatively fast.

around 50 MA Indian plate collide with Asian plate and move to pushing northward . as a result of convergent two plate which were continental plates so the density of them is same the Himalaya mountain chain if formed because non one of the plates will sink down both are rising up, for that the Everest mountain is the highest place in the earth, the drifting o the Indian plate is still taking place but with velocity 5 cm per year, and now the earthquake in Himalaya region is high because of movement of the Indian plate northward

Table for the Earthquake in the last ten years in the north India

Location of the Earthquake Magnitude Date
Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, India, Kashmir 6.1 Mw 2018-01-31
India, Bangladesh 5.7 Mw 2017-01-03
India, Myanmar, Bangladesh 6.7 Mw 2016-01-04
Afghanistan, India, Pakistan 7.7 Mw 2015-10-26
Nepal, India 7.3 Mw 2015-05-12
Nepal, India 7.8 Mw 2015-04-25
Kashmir 5.7 Mw 2013-05-01
Gangtok, Sikkim 6.9 Mw 2011-09-18
West Bengal 4.3 Mb 2008-02-06
       

 

 

References

The Evolving Continents 2 edition 1984 bu B. F. Windley

U S Geological survey website “The Himalayas: Two continents collide” https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/himalaya.html

Scientific Reports website “Pangea breakup and northward drift of the Indian subcontinent reproduced by a numerical model of mantle convection”

https://www.nature.com/articles/srep08407

Wikipedia ” Indian Plate”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Plate

List of Earthquake in India

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_earthquakes_in_India

Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift and Mountain Building 2011th Edition by Wolfgang Frisch

 

About Ismail Mohammed Omer Younnis

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